Polygala tenuifolia is one of the 50 fundamental herbs of Traditional Chinese Medicine and is the premier tonic for the brain and mental functions.
Polygala root is an NMDA antagonist, AMPA agonist, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor, it stimulates acetylcholine synthesis via ChAT (Choline acetyltransferase), inhibits the reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, mildly inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO), enhances the immune system, reduces inflammation in the brain, protects neurons from oxidative stress and shock, reduces stress and cortisol levels, increases nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity, attenuates Nitric Oxide, TNF-α, and PGE2 production, and reduces the secretion of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in neuroblastoma cells.
antidepressant, adaptogenic, neuroprotective, neurotrophic, antidepressant, anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic, anti-dementia, anticonvulsant, expectorant, antibacterial, analgesic, memory enhancement
tenuifolisides A, B, and C, 3,6′-disaponylsucrose (DISS), tenuifoliose A, B, C, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, V, W, and X, tenuifolin, tenuigenin,senegenin, senegenin II, senegenin III, polygalasaponin F (PGSF), tenuifoside A, polygalasaponin XXXII, onjisaponin V, E, L, G, F, O, S, R, W, TH, TE, TF, TG, Gg, and Ng, Sibiricose A1, sibiricose A5, and sibitircose A6, 7-O-methylmangiferin, shibiricaxanthone A, and lancerin, Yuanzhi-1, tetrahydrocolumbamine, triterpenoid glycosides, clionasterol, chondrillasterol, and more
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